Advice Note of the Patent Application
Application Number : 02109752.6
Application Date: May 17, 2002
Applicant: Li Pengfei
Patent Name: a kind of manufacturing technology of artificial soil
Abstract of the Patent Specification
This invention relates to a kind of manufacturing technology of artificial soil used in agriculture and plantproduction. It makes use of rock, solid wastes produced in industry, mining and construction and all kinds of organic matter through process of selection, crushing and grinding, to mix inorganic material powder with organic matter in certain proportion and to ferment the mixture so as to get thecompostmanufacturing soil. Then artificial soil can be made by mixing the compost manufacturing soil and inorganic material powder﹙the parent materials manufacturing soil﹚according to certain proportion that meets fundamental conditions with essential properties of water-retaining, heat-retaining, permeation and fertility for growing of plants. This technology can be easily put in practice as well as be largely produced. It can be used to harmonize developing agriculture, disposing wastes of industry and mining, controlling water pollution, dealing with domestic wastes and protecting environment, to promote and realize a favorable circulation, especially in barren mountainous area, deserted areas and islands etc. where human beings, animals and plants can not live due to shortness of soil.
Domain of the Technology
The invention is about artificial soil that meets fundamental conditions for growing of plants.
Shortened form of the invention is artificial soil.
Background of the Technology
In nature, before becoming soil available for plants, the hard rock has experienced a long and complicated process, which may be hundreds of thousands years, and even millions of years . It can be seen that land resource is very precious and? can scarcely be regenerated. Due to the limited technological literatures I can search, I can not ensure if artificial soil has ever been proposed in the world, then I can say that it is the first invention temporarily. Soilless culture technology is similar to it, especially the organic ecological soilless culture technology that is the first invented by our country. This technology utilizes organic fertilizer instead of nutrition liquid, and its matrix﹙also as：growing media﹚ includes vermiculite, perlite, rock-cotton, volcanic rock, coal cinder, pottery granules and organic substances such as rice husk, sawdust and bagasse etc. in this aspect, the two technologies are similar, but They certainly belong to different domains of technology. The matrix of organic ecological soilless culture technology should be changed every three years, but the parent materials manufacturing soil are an important component of artificial soil and never needs replacement, and with the growing for plants, it will become mature.
Purpose of the Invention
The purpose of the invention is to seek a way through which mass production of artificial soil by factory at a high speed can be achieved, and this patented technology can realize the regeneration of soil by turning domestic wastes into useful resources, harmonize human beings and the nature, and solve the problem of environmental protection.
Introduction of the Technology
In nature, any kind of soil originates from the evolution of rock. Firstly, the rock composing the earth crust has be changed into the parent material forming soil through physical, chemical and biological erosion. The nutritional element in the parent material forming soil is dispersive and can be lost easily with flowing water, and nitrogen, the most required element for plant growing, does not exist in the parent material forming soil. Secondly, autogenous? bacteria begin to appear in the parent material forming soil. The autogenous bacteria do not need organic nutrition, they only need water , air and mineral nutrition as well as a certain temperature for growth and reproduction. Thirdly, Lower-grade plants such as lichen, bryozoan etc. begin to grow. Along with the accumulation of living beings is going more and more, the amount of organic matter in the parent material forming soil is going more and more, Then higher-grade plants gradually replace lower-grade plants, and through strong and extensive root system, the dispersive and soluble nutrition can be concentrated. After the death of organisms, and through decomposition of microbes, one part of the remains of the organisms becomes nutrients for plants, and another part of the remains turns into humus. The humus plays an important role in terms of generating fertility for the parent materials forming soil. On the one hand, it can keep nutrition, on the other hand, it can change the physical properties of the parent materials forming soil and make the parent materials forming soil possess structure and fertility. After all these steps, the parent materials forming soil has turned into soil, and the evolution from rock to soil has been accomplished.
The basic principle of artificial soil and the mechanism of naturally-generated soil are almost the same, the difference is that time and process for generating artificial soil have been shortened greatly.
The essential materials of artificial soil can be divided into three types. The first type is different kinds of rocks including sedimentary rock, metamorphic rock and volcanic rock among which black mudstone, black shale, clay, slate, phyllite, granite, basalt, andesite and volcanic ash are the best except some chemically depositional rock such as salt rock, gypsum, limestone. The second type is solid wastes from industry, mining and construction, including waste rock, tailings, waste slag, gangue, coal cinder, brick and tile, ceramics, cement component, sand and waste plastic except some harmful substance such as container with agricultural chemical, poisonous compound, wastes of over-standard? heavy metal and radioactive substances. The third type is different kinds of organisms, including straw, peels and core of melons and fruits, vegetables, weed, remains of animals, algae, manure of humans and animals, house-hold rubbish, meat, fibre, waste cloth, leather, waste wood, silt of river and lake, silt from sewer and sewage treatment plant, peat and brown coal except harmful chemicals, organic matter containing over-standard mercury, benzene and heavy metal. The technological process of artificial soil can be divided into five steps ﹙see Fig. 1﹚. Firstly, Collected raw materials for artificial soil have been classified and classified further. Secondly, Classified inorganic materials have been crushed and abraded to make a lot of powder and store them separately. Thirdly, Organic material ﹙the solid organic matter needs to be crushed ﹚ and inorganic material powder have been mixed in certain proportion and put into ferment workshop under medium-high temperature condition to ferment and make the compost manufacturing soil. Fourthly, The compost manufacturing soil and inorganic materials powder﹙also as：the parent materials manufacturing soil﹚ have been mixed in certain proportion to make artificial soil with properties of water-retaining, heat-retaining, permeation and fertility, and essential condition for growing of plants. Fifthly, artificial soils have been checked and evaluated comprehensively according to standards of soil for green food production base, then experiment of growing crops has been conducted. Only after the soil is tested to be qualified, it can be put to the market.
Advantage and Positive Effect of the Invention
Through this technology, We can produce artificial soil. The quality and property of artificial soil are not inferior to natural soil. Due to the possibility of industrialized and large-scale production, it is especially significant to China with a large population and limited cultivated land. Artificial soil can be widely used in many respects, such as artificial cultivated land﹙see Fig. 2 and Tab. 1﹚, improving farmland and pasture, afforesting barren mountains and cities, and controlling desertification etc. If this technology can be extensively applied in our country, from view of macro-control, developing economy, disposing wastes from industry, mining and construction, treating house-hold rubbish in cities, controlling water pollution in river, lake and sea as well as developing organic agriculture can be coordinated, and then a favorable circulation and environmental protection can be achieved naturally.
In order to verify the feasibility of the invention, I conducted a simple test of growing plants in artificial soil. There were 21 samples﹙see Tab.2﹚in the test. They represented separately rock, solid wastes from industries, mining and construction as well as organic matter. These samples served as raw materials of artificial soil. Firstly, powder was made out of 19 samples﹙№2-20﹚ respectively by pounding, abrading and screening with 100 hole∕cm2 metal screen. The grain size of powder equals to brown earth in nature. Secondly, №2, 13, 21 samples and water in certain proportion﹙see Tab.3﹚ were mixed homogeneously and the mixture was made to ferment at 45-55℃ for 100 days in anaerobic condition and became the compost manufacturing soil. Thirdly, the compost manufacturing soil and №2-20 samples were mixed homogeneously in certain proportion to generate one-element artificial soil, three-element artificial soil and eleven-element artificial soil﹙see Tab. 4, 5 and 6﹚. Fourthly, growing plants test was made. The crops planted included wheat, rice, pakchoi, spinach, flower, grass, wild garlic, Chinese locust tree, willow and elm, and all the test were successful. Among them result of the test planting wheat﹙see Photo.1-11﹚shows that the germination percentage of №2-18 samples are above 95％ and the development of roots in the artificial soil was no difference from that in №1 natural soil﹙modern soil﹚. As for the germination percentage of №19, 20 were about 80％ in early time and seedlings were short and yellow as well as the occurrence of dead seedlings, the poor living conditions for plants were to be blamed. Due to timely watering, the roots in these soils were developed better and plants grew better. The test also indicated that multi-element artificial soils are better than one-element artificial soil and more suitable for development of crops, because there are the more number of element in artificial soil, the more it is similar to natural soil,? and its pH and water saltness in artificial soil etc. are the more favourable for growing plants.