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A Brief Insight into the Strategy of Artificial Soil

Abstract:
The key point of the paper is that land resources are not limited. On the contrary, soil can be manufactured on a large scale in factory conditions at high speed. Based on the success of lab test, the author has proposed intermediate test programs and recommended that 2 billion mu land be made in a period of 200 years in China to increase the land resources and agricultural infrastructure so that the four factors “population, resources, environment and development” can be coordinated to realize a favorable cycle in a true sense and help improve the economic strength and comprehensive national strength of China.

Key words: artificial soil? resource? non-limited? environment

An ordinary Chinese talks about the strategy of national development, which sounds reasonable theoretically, but nearly absurd in real life. People can not help asking: “If you are able to do research on this important theoretical matter, what are the government officials, managing sectors, scientists, academic bodies and entrepreneurs to do?” It is justifiable to ask such a question, of course. I have recently read a few books about the strategy of development of China in the 21st century and they were written and edited by well-known people with famous quotations from classical works. They are sometimes very long with tens of thousands of words or sometimes very persuasive with both Chinese and foreign languages used. The arguments in the books are very clear, but reading between the lines carefully, I think the strategy of development in the 21st century has not been addressed satisfactorily.
Let’s look into a few examples. First take agriculture for example. The basic situation is that the cultivated land has decreased from 2.1 billion mu to the present 1.889 billion mu and the bottom line is 1.6 billion mu. The change of agricultural industrial structure depends on planting more valuable crops for export and then buying grain from international markets as well as planting high-yield crops such as hybrid rice and super rice to meet the food requirements for people, livestock and industrial purposes. Talking about the problems such as environment pollution, land deteriorating, desertification and invasion of sand blown by the wind, etc., some successes have been achieved in local treatment, but the overall situation is deteriorating. Besides, in the next 20 years, the development pace of industrialization and urbanization will be quickened in China, which will make the above problems even more complex.
What is at the core of the problems in China and what is the major contradiction among the factors (population, resources, environment and development)? I think the key problem lies in that we are puzzled and bound hand and foot by the traditional concept of land resources being limited.
I maintain that land resources are not limited, but can be regenerated and can be produced on a large scale and at high speed under factory conditions, which opposes sharply to the traditional concept of land resources being limited. If my proposal is accepted, will all those inferences with regard to the development strategy based on land resources being limited, such as agriculture, environment protection, the treatment of sand problems, mining, city planning and the industrial structural adjustment be revised?
What are the reasons supporting my argument of “land resources being not limited”? It is a long story and it starts with an artificial soil test. From the second half of 2001 to the first half of 2002, I conducted the test and the process was very simple. First, I collected 21 samples in Liaoning Province, among which No.1 sample is a natural soil from Niuzhuang, Haicheng City, used as reference system to other samples. No. 21 sample is dry cow dung collected in a village of Panjin to represent all kinds of organic matter. The samples from No. 2 to No. 20 are respectively black mudstone (Liaohe Basin, Cenozoic), black mudstone (Caitun mining area of Benxi Basin, Paleozoic), dark grey gangue (Caitun mining area of Benxi Basin, Paleozoic), brown shale (Caitun mining area of Benxi Basin, Paleozoic), brown grey shale(The West Opencut Coal Mine of Fushun Basin, Cenozoic), grey silty mudstone(Haizhou Opencut Coal Mine of Fuxin Basin, Mesozoic), black grey? gangue(Haizhou Opencut Coal Mine of Fuxin Basin,? Mesozoic), grey yellow clay(Jianping County, Chaoyang City, its era to be determined), grey silicon slate( Qianshan Mountain of Anshan City, pre-Paleozoic), grey phyllite(Qianshan Mountain of Anshan City, pre-paleozoic), granite-gneiss(Qianshan Mountain of Anshan City, pre-Paleozoic), granite(MountYiwulu, its era to be determined), diorite(MountYiwulu, its era to be determined), black basalt(The West Opencut Coal Mine of Fushun Basin, Cenozoic), dark purple andesite( Mount Guiyunhua of Zhuanghe City, Mesozoic), fragment of brick-tile-pottery-porcelain( from the building site of Panjin City), coal cinder( from the boiler room of Heji Road of Panjin City), cement( from the building site of Panjin City) and slag (from Bohai Stockroom of Liaohe Oilfield, produced in Anshan City). The 19 samples were used to represent solid wastes (except harmful substances) produced from industries, mining, smelting and building. The following work was done in four steps. Firstly, powder was made out of the 19 samples respectively by pounding, abrading and screening and became what I Call " the parent materials manufacturing soil'. This is real hard work and it took more than 2 months to finish with tools such as iron hammer, powder roller and 100 hole/ cm2 metal screens. Secondly, the cow dung, the parent materials manufacturing soil (also called "inorganic raw powder”) and water were mixed homogeneously and the mixture was made to ferment at the temperature of 45-55℃ and in anaerobic conditions to enable the organic matter to be resolved into nutrients that could be absorbed by plants and became what I call “the compost manufacturing soil”. My way of doing it was to mix the powder of black mudstone (No.2 sample) and granite (No. 13 sample) with cow dung and water and then to pour the mixture into a big plastic barrel to expel the air in it by compressing. Use another upside-down plastic barrel of the same size to cover the plastic barrel and seal up the joint of the two barrels with sealing belts to isolate from air and to keep an anaerobic environment. The two plastic barrels were enclosed with an electrothermal pad and current was given to it to keep relative stable temperatures. Temperature testing indicated that the temperature at the center of the barrel could reach 55℃ at the maximum and the temperature at the sides of the barrel was 10℃ lower. This process took 100 days. The gas produced during fermentation was sampled twice for ignition testing. Blue flame was observed in the first test, which indicated that a lot of biogas existed while no flame was observed in the second test because of no combustible gas in the barrel, which indicated the decompounding peak of organic matter had been over. Thirdly, the different parent materials manufacturing soil and the compost manufacturing soil were mixed homogeneously at proper ratio to form artificial soils. Among the artificial soils, the one with one parent material manufacturing soil was called one-element artificial soil and the one with three parent materials for manufacturing soil was called three-element artificial soil and so on and so forth. In the test, 21 samples of artificial soil were formulated, including 19 one-element artificial soils and one three-element artificial soil and one eleven-element artificial soil. The fourth step was the planting test. The No.1 sample which was a brown yellow natural soil from Niuzhuang, Haicheng City and 21 samples of artificial soils were respectively put in 22 flowerpots and the flowerpots were put on the balcony of my house to do the test. The crops planted included wheat, rice, pakchoi, spinach, flower, grass and wild garlic. The saplings of Chinese scholartree, willow and elm were also planted. Wheat planting was the focus of the test. On April 16, 2002, 200 seeds of wheat were sown in each of the 20 flowerpots, among which No.1 flowerpot was loaded with No.1 natural soil sample and No.2-No.20 flowerpots were loaded with No.2-No. 20 artificial soil samples. Three days later, the seeds in No. 5, 7,8,10 and 15 flowerpots sprouted and in No.8 black grey gangue artificial soil, 10 seeds sprouted. On the fourth day, seedlings were found in No.1 natural soil flowerpot with 3 in the morning and 22 in the evening while at the same time, 73 seedlings had been found in No.8 artificial soil flowerpot. On the fifth day, seedlings were found in No.19 cement artificial soil flowerpot that was the last to have seedlings among the 20 flowerpots. Seedlings were also found in No.20 slag artificial soil. Up to then, seedlings were found in all of the 20 flowerpots. On April 23, i.e. eight days after sowing, No. 3 flowerpot with black mudstone artificial soil in it had the most seedlings of 192 with the germination percentage of 96%, followed by No.1 natural soil with 188 seedlings and the germination percentage of 94%. The worst case was with No. 19 cement artificial soil with 73 seedlings and the germination percentage of 36%. By April 28, the seedlings in No.19 soil had increased to 127 with the germination percentage of 63%. The seedlings in No. 20 slag artificial soil reached 133 with the germination percentage of 66%, being the second from the bottom. On May 5, 2002, the heights of the plants were measured, i.e. measuring the length from the surface of the soil to the top of the wheat leaves. The height of the wheat in No.13 granite artificial soil was 38cm, being the maximum, followed by the wheat in No. 1 natural soil of 36cm. The shortest was the wheat in No. 19 cement artificial soil with the height of 24cm and the wheat in No. 20 soil ranked the second from the bottom once again with 26cm. On June 25, 2002, the first ear of wheat was found in No. 4 dark grey gangue artificial soil and wheat heads were spotted successively in other flowerpots afterwards. Up to now, it can be concluded that the lab test of artificial soils for planting has been successful. When the test was over, the development of the roots of wheat was observed and it was found that the development of roots in the artificial soils was no difference from that in natural soil except in No. 19 and No.20 soils. As for the low germination percentage and short and yellow plants at the initial stage as well as the occurrence of dead seedlings in No. 19 and No.20 soils, the poor living conditions for plants were to be blamed. Due to timely watering, the roots in these soils were developed better and the plants grew better. The test also indicated that multi-element artificial soils are better than one-element artificial soils and more suitable for the development of crops. It should be noted that the success of the test for planting depended mainly on the compost manufacturing soil. If the planting test is repeated one after another, the effects of the parent materials manufacturing soil will be brought into full play gradually. With the improvement of the maturity of artificial soils, the growing situations of crops will become better and better. The artificial soils will be the same as the tier soil in Shannxi Province which can be used for planting for thousands of years. Due to the limitation of conditions and the small yield of crops, the test of feeding animals with the crops and product quality appraisal have not been conducted this time and will be performed in future tests. It should also be made clear that another similar technique to artificial soils is cultivation without soils, especially the technique of organic ecotype cultivation without soil initiated in China, in which organic fertilizer is used instead of nutrient fluids and the matrix includes not only vermiculite, rocky cotton, volcanic rock, slag and ceramsite but also organic matters such as rice husk, sawdust and bagasse, which is similar to the technique of artificial soils. However the two techniques belong to different fields. The matrix used in the technique of organic ecotype cultivation without soil has to be replaced once every 3 years and the parent materials manufacturing soil are? important components of artificial soils and they will not be replaced. With the repeated planting and growing of plants year after year, the parent materials manufacturing soil mature gradually and can be used for at least 10,000 years if they are not polluted or damaged.?
Next intermediate tests should be conducted. This serves as an important link between the past and the future. In this stage, feasibility study can be done and programs can be optimized and the economic and technical parameters can be measured to do the economic and technical evaluation, providing necessary technical preparation and program design basis for the full-scale spreading of the technique. In fact, I had worked out the basic concept and preliminary operation program for the intermediate test, but due to the lack of funds, the test had to be stopped midway.
In order to seek for help from all circles of the society and get financial support, I had sent 200 letters from June14 to August 25, 2002 with 3 articles enclosed: “A Kind of Manufacturing Technology of Artificial Soil”, “If I Were Given an Opportunity by the Society” and “My Overall Planning” (See attached appendix1, 2 and 3). Meanwhile, according to the situations of the recipients, I had sent some autograph letters and other materials to express my sincere expectations and firm determination and resolutions. Up to now, 9 letters have been sent back because the addresses were not clear and I have received only 12 replies and no answers for the rest 179 letters. The letters were sent mostly to government officials at various levels, followed by higher learning institutions and academic bodies. The 12 answers were sent as routine business and the same message was conveyed either indirectly or directly: they did not support me.
It is an undoubted fact that the artificial soil test (lab test) has come to a success. The test is in conformance with the basic principles of scientific experiment and it can withstand repeated tests and its meaning is outstanding.
There have been 5 ordinary inventions in history that have changed and pushed the development course of human history. They were the first chipped stone implement, hitting stone or drilling wood to make fire for the first time, taming the first wild animal, sowing the first seed and the making of the first steam engine. The basic principles of these inventions were very simple while the gradual perfection of these inventions took a long and eventful process, which was reflected in the saying that “the road to happiness is strewn with setbacks”. Meanwhile such work is often cumbersome to the wise men, so we should not be eager for quick success and instant benefit, which is best reflected in the saying “A man of great wisdom often appears slow-witted”.
In the future, 5 nations will play an important role in history, including the U.S.A, Russia, China, India and Brazil. To set off the basic situation in China, I would like to introduce the situations in the other countries in terms of agriculture.

India: India is situated in the south of Asia with a land area of 2974700 km2. It belongs to sub-tropical climate, which is suitable for the growing of crops. It is the summer time from March to June, rainy season form July to September and wintertime from October to February. The wintertime is the best season in India with comfortable climate. The arable land takes up more than 50% of the land area in India, being about 0.42 billion acres (about 2.548 billion mu). If there are 1.1 billion people in India, it is calculated that the arable land per person is about 2.3 mu. Because crops can grow in India all year round in India, the multiple crop index is high.
Brazil:? Brazil is situated in the east of South America with a land area of 8547400 km2. Most of it belongs to tropical climate except the south of it, which is sub-tropical. It has the largest tropical rain forest in the world. It is the spring time from September to November, summer time from December to February, autumn from March to May and winter from June to August. It is wet and hot in Brazil and it is suitable for crops to grow everywhere in the country and it is a country with almost no wasteland. On the over 30 million hectares of cultivated land, economic crops are grown there mainly. If there are 0.18 billion people in Brazil, it is calculated that the cultivated land per person is about 3 mu. If the development of agriculture is emphasized at the cost of damaging the tropical rain forest, there will not be any problem in feeding another 1 billion people.
America: ?It had 7.3 billion mu farmland in 1950, 6.8 billion mu in 1970 and the cultivated land is about 5.7 billion mu now. America’s agriculture is well developed and America is the largest farm produce export country in the world.
Russia: It has the largest land area in the world and its agricultural reserve resources are by no means inferior to America. It has been calculated that 2 billion people do not count as a burden to Russia.
Compared with the above four countries, China’s agriculture burden has almost reached its limit. In the future, we have to face the reality of feeding 1.6 billion people by 1.6 billion mu cultivated land. This is truly a sword suspending above our heads. If any severe natural disasters happen and any sudden incidents break out in the world, such as nuclear war, nuclear pollution or the burst of the dam of a massive reservoir, the 1.6 billion mu cultivated land will be further reduced. If environmental damage, industrial and agricultural pollution, soil erosion, land desertification as well as the quickening of industrialization and urbanization process are considered, the cultivated land will also be reduced. To think a little further into the future, if the sea level rises 2-5 m in 200 years time, just imagine how many kilometers of the mouths of the 5 big rivers in our country will move up towards the land and how many square kilometers of the plains along the seacoast will be flooded. All these may be regarded as the factors that may reduce our cultivated land. Talking about the population in our country, scholars predict that the peak value will be 1.6 billion. Whether the 1.6 billion value will be surpassed is not a question to be argued about, but a question to be considered seriously. In my view, China’s population makings are poor and traditional concepts are deeply rooted in most people’s minds. People’s spiritual life is relatively monotonous and social security system and welfare treatment are still in the process of being perfected. Besides the climate in China is suitable for the multiplying of population, so the trend of population increase exists still and the population is hard to be controlled below 1.6 billion.
What are the basic national conditions of China? That the 1.6 billion mu cultivated land and 1.6 billion population may not be kept under control is our national condition and this is the social background against which I invented the artificial soil technique and the reason that I am eager to do the intermediate tests as well. The technique of artificial soil may not be useful for the above 4 countries, but to China with a large population and little land, the technique will provide timely help. Therefore I wrote at the beginning of my article“ If I Were Given an Opportunity by the Society” that “If I was given an opportunity by the society, I would do one thing that is I would start an enterprise, mobilize the whole society and rely on the spirit of drawing together and striving upheld by our nationality beyond the memory of men to make a land area of 2 billion mu in 200 years time and change China into the world farm.” I wrote another sentence in another article “My Overall Planning” that is “ If the target of making 2 billion mu land is met in 200 years time, then the food problem of at least 1.2 billion people will be solved. The number of 1.2 billion people equals the total sum of the population in Europe and North America, so is it too much to call China “the world farm” by then? I have repeated that making 2 billion mu land in 200 years is our final goal and the “sword” over our heads will be removed after the traditional concept of limited land resource is smashed.
To make my illustration simpler, I sum up the artificial soil intermediate tests in 20 programs. There are different program designs because the external factors are variables, i.e. the financial support and the support in terms of policy from the government vary. For example, the first program is made supposing no financial support whatsoever is provided and under current conditions this is very likely the case. The 20th program is made supposing sufficient financial support and great support from the government are provided, whose possibility is very slim under the current conditions. Detailed programs are given in the following table.

There are some other tests being drawn up which are not included in the table including, for example, the recommendation of planting tropical rain forest (about 1000 m2) in Hong Kong and Macao area; building a reservoir for city sewage above the dam in the north of Zhangjiakou to collect the city sewage from Beijing; Tianjin and Tangshan and to avoid the sewage from being drained to the rivers; taking the waste from building the Olympic stadiums and gymnasiums in Beijing as the parent materials manufacturing soil and changing the waste into artificial soil to make the places for Olympic games green; building China’s first artificial soil factory in Jinzhou City, Liaoning; making use of the loess from the Loess Plateau to improve the grassland in Inner Mongolia on a large scale; controlling and preventing the sand blown by wind by treating the soil first and gradually improving the climate instead of the traditional mode embodied by the shelter belt in the three directions in the north and consolidating step by step from the southeast to the northwest; in developing the northwest of China, changing the traditional living lifestyle of the cities and forbidding the draining of excrement and urine of men and animals into rivers in Xi’an, Lanzhou, Xining and Urumchi to protect the environment; setting up a artificial soil specialty in agricultural higher-learning institutions in China and enrolling undergraduates and graduates. In fact, my recommendations are far more than the 8 mentioned above.
20 Intermediate test programs for artificial soil technique

No.

Name of
program

program
nickname

Test
place

Important test items

External????? factors
Financial? Supporting
support??? policy

Estim.
Invest.
RMB?¥
0.1
billion

notes

1

RZT-1

Langji
tianya

Hainan

Planting wheat,
vegetables, fruits,
eating them myself and having medical checkup regularly

none

none

0.002

Hardest,
yet
most
practical

2

RZT-2

Daoxiang
qianli

Hunan

Planting rice, feeding animals tests, product
appraisal

A little

A little

 

 

3

RZT-3

Yuyu
congcong

Zhangzhou
Fujian

Planting vegetables, flowers, feeding animals tests, product
appraisal

A little

A little

 

 

4

RZT-4

Guoshi
leilei

Guangdong

Planting fruits, feeding animals tests, product
appraisal

A little

A little

 

 

5

RZT-5

Mailang
gungun

Henan

Planting wheat, feeding animals tests, product appraisal

A little

A little

 

 

6

RZT-6

Saiwai
jiangnan

Jinzhou
Liaoning

Improving the soil

Uncertain

Uncertain

 

 

7

RZT-7

Lubo
wanqing

Inner
Mongolia

Improving the grassland

Uncertain

Uncertain

 

 

8

RZT-8

Chengshi
luzhuang

Urban of
Beijing

City virescence

Uncertain

Uncertain

 

 

9

RZT-9

Shalong
luzhuang

Suburb of
Beijing

Treating of moving
Sand dune

Uncertain

Uncertain

 

 

10

RZT-10

Shahai
luzhuang

Ningxia

Treating small desert with the clay from Loess Plateau

Uncertain

Uncertain

 

 

11

RZT-11

Sanchi
pingchuan

Guizhou

Making soil in limestone mountainous areas

Uncertain

Uncertain

 

 

12

RZT-12

Shanqing
shuixiu

Jiangxi

Making land with Lake Boyang’s silt in another place

Uncertain

Uncertain

 

 

13

RZT-13

Luse
zoulang

Gansu

Changing the local climate and restoring the vitality in Gansu Corridor with artificial soil technique

Uncertain

Uncertain

 

 

14

RZT-14

Huangshan
luzhuang

Dalian,
Liaoning

Making the barren hills green with solid waste from mines

Sufficient

Much
more

 

 

15

RZT-15

Piaoliu
gudao

A wild island in Hainan

Simulating the living ability of men on wild islands without soil

Sufficient

Much
more

 

 

16

RZT-16

Luse
baolei

Southern Foothill of
Tianshan

Simulating men’s ability to change the environment at extremely harsh conditions

Sufficient

Complete
concession

 

 

17

RZT-17

Dixia
luzhou

underground
mine

Simulating men’s ability to survive 1000m underground after surface nuclear pollution

Sufficient

Complete
concession

 

 

18

RZT-18

Kongzhong
luzhou

Space station of the earth

Simulating men’s ability to live in the space

Sufficient

Complete
concession

 

 

19

RZT-19

Yuexiang
luzhou

Surface of the moon

Simulating men’s ability to live on the moon

Sufficient

Complete
concession

 

 

20

RZT-20

Shijian
taoyuan

Small town
Guangdong

Testing all projects, product appraisal, economic & technical parameters, program optimization, thorough evaluation

Sufficient

complete

20

Most
ideal,
the least practical


It will take 20 years to finish the intermediate test with the cost of about RMB?¥ 20 billion. During the 20 years, extending the test results will be carried out while the test is being done, so part of the investment may be recovered and some social benefits will also be brought about, promoting the development of related industries and providing job opportunities, so on and so forth, so the actual investment will be much lower than RMB?¥ 20 billion. Due to the limit of the space of the article, the detailed contents of the 20 programs can not be given here, but the following explanations are made in terms of the common problems:

  1. There are two basic parts in each test program. First the inorganic materials are smashed and ground into inorganic powder called the parent materials manufacturing soil. This is the hardest job of the test. Supposing 500 t of parent materials manufacturing soil is needed for manufacturing 1 mu of land, the amount will be surprisingly huge. The cost of this part will take up over 50% of the total cost of the test. The second part is to make organic matter ferment and become the compost manufacturing soil under anaerobic conditions. The first part of the test may cause damage to human body by dust while in the second part the working environment is dirty and odorous and may lurk the risk of microbe attacks, so protection to the working personnel must be in place.
  2. To ensure the smooth progress of the test, support from the local government must be obtained and some administrative codes must be formulated for the public to follow. The personnel involved in the test must be trained and some related bylaws must be defined for everyone to obey. Within the test area, all daily rubbish, industrial solid waste and dejection of men and animals must be used in manufacturing soil (except harmful substances) instead of entering the environment, or being discharged into rivers. It should be noted that each testing personnel should adhere to the three “don’t”------do not spit anywhere, do not throw dog-ends anywhere and do not trample on lawns, abiding by the public morals and improving the makings of the Chinese Nation.
  3. In terms of the management of financial affairs, every penny should be saved for the test and the cost of the test should be reduced with every effort possible. Therefore, three kinds of people are needed in the test, powder-making engineers, experts on agricultural microbes and chief inspector of finance. To estimate the cost of making soil, I have done some investigations recently. There is a stone powder factory affiliated to No.1 Drilling Company of Liaohe Oilfield which specializes in grinding quartz, bentonite and barite for preparing drilling fluids. The factory’s electric cost is about RMB?¥80 grinding one ton of material (big stones). It was reported in “Construction Materials Newspaper”, during the production of cement, the comprehensive consumption of electricity is lower than 90 kilowatt hour/t with the new dry technology. Considering that the parent materials manufacturing soil need not to be as fine as the drilling fluid powder or cement, the powder-making cost will be less than RMB?¥100/t. Supposing 500 t is needed per mu, its cost can be controlled within RMB?¥50000/mu. With the improvement of technology, the cost in this regard may be reduced to RMB?¥25000/mu if powder-making engineers can reduce the cost of powder making to less than RMB?¥50/t. As for the compost manufacturing soil, no high cost is involved and some income may be earned if it is well done. For example, the biogas may be used as fuel and the compost can be sold. Treating household rubbish for the country may earn some financial subsidy.

Nevertheless, two of the above programs must be mentioned here, the first one “Langjitianya” and the last one “Shijiantaoyuan”.
No.1 Program is the most practical and feasible and RMB?¥60000 has been raised. I have to get rid of the different opinions of my family and I plan to do the test in Hainan or Guangdong in the second half of 2003 in the suburbs of small towns or villages close to towns. Due to the limit of capital, most of the work will be done manually or by simple machines. Biogas pools may not be built and big vats or ground pits may be used for anaerobic fermentation. I will try to make an artificial land area of 100-200 m2 within 2 years. The main crops will be wheat (or any cereal crops suitable to the place), vegetables, and melons. All the farm products will be my foods so that the intermediate step of feeding the animals will be eliminated. I must go to hospitals to have medical checkups regularly in order to evaluate the edibility of the crops grown on artificial soil. In addition, I will actively get contacts with the local government and the local people to let them know what I am doing so as to at least guarantee my personal safety. I expect to have some small successes in two years with the cost controlled within RMB?¥ 60000.
No.20 Program is the program worked out supposing that I were really given an opportunity by the society and all my requirements had been met, including the recognition of artificial soil manufacturing technique by the society, acceptance by the central government, help from scientists to perfect the technique and investment intents of entrepreneurs. The program should include the following 10 points:

  1. Purpose of the test: Through relatively large scales of intermediate test of artificial soil technique, determine the safe edibility of the farm products on such soils and obtain the economic and technical parameters of the artificial soil technique and make a comprehensive evaluation of the technique, providing the theoretical basis and technical preparation for making 2 billion mu land in 200 years time.
  2. Test items: 4 categories and 24 items
  3. Artificial soil test: (1) setting up a medium-sized artificial soil factory; (2) establishing the material source system; (3)optimizing the artificial soil formulations;(4)inspecting product quality;(5) environment monitoring system inside the factory.
  4. Artificial land test: (1)artificial cultivated land (a. only the tillage layer; b. making land according to the typical soil profile);(2) artificial meadow; (3) urban greening;(4) improving cultivated land (desertification control);(5) improving meadows; (6) greening the wild hills;(7)treating small scale sandy land (desert); (8) planting crops (no GM crops, no chemical fertilizer or pesticide, using organic fertilizer and the atmospheric environment and farming water up to the requirements of organic foods); (9) inspecting the quality of products.
  5. Test of safe edibility to animals and to men: After the safe edibility to animals is confirmed, the test on men can be conducted in a gradual safety-first manner. (1) After the inspections of organic food standards are qualified, feeding animals can begin and the test period is one year. When the safety is confirmed, the test on men can start. (2) The test on men will last one year with 1/3 of artificial soil products in the food in the first 4 months and 2/3 in the mid 4 months and 100% in the last 4 months. (3) Have body checkups once every two months. (4) Make records and observations of the whole process of food consumption and draw a conclusion on the safety in the end.
  6. Reconstructing the test town: (1) Water systems for industrial use and household use should be separated, i.e. water for industrial use should be recycled and used repeatedly 100% and should not be allowed into the environment. Only water used for washing rice, vegetables, clothes, bathing and dishes is allowed to be discharged into the civil sewage pipelines and no human or animal wastes are allowed. (2) The human and animal wastes will be treated with a closed technique and then sent to artificial soil factory to be used as materials for compost manufacturing soil. The government should build public toilets open to the public free of charge and the toilets should be managed by designated persons to make people’s life more convenient. (3) The solid wastes from industries, mines, smelts and constructions of the test town should be managed separately from the household rubbish. Except the harmful substances, all of them should be the materials for artificial soil. The solid wastes left behind in the past should also be disposed step by step. (4) Household waste water disposal station: Because there is no industrial waste water nor men or animal wastes coming to the station, the household waste water, after some slight treatments, can reach the standards for farming purposes or be discharged into rivers with no risk of polluting the environment. (5) The three-in-one monitoring system for air, water body and soil in the precinct. (6) Improving the environment protection consciousness of the public and establishing related local regulations, pacts and some other compulsory measures to make the test town cleaner and more beautiful.
  7. Test sites:
    1. Close to big cities, industries and mines to have sufficient solid waste source;
    2. Close to the national power grid and the traffic trunk lines to help reducing the cost and the test progressing smoothly;
    3. Suitable climate with high temperature and precipitation more than 1000mm/year and sufficient sunlight;
    4. The test town should have a population of about 20000 with 20000 mu land(Suppose the test town is called Taoyuan Town);
    5. The altitude of the test site should be higher than 70 m.
    6. ?The place must not have had industrial pollution, water pollution or air pollution.
  8. Budgetary estimate of test investment:

The total investment of the intermediate test of artificial soil technique is estimated to be RMB?¥2 billion, including direct investment, indirect investment and auxiliary investment in a test period of 20 years and it is expected to manufacture 20000 mu land.

    1. Direct investment: (1) the cost of artificial soil (material cost + engineering cost + manpower cost); (2) the cost of artificial land (artificial soil cost + site-leasing charge + engineering cost +manpower cost).
    2. Indirect investment: (1) artificial soil factory; (2) roads, water, electricity, communication and traffic vehicles; (3) auxiliary installations; (4) scientific research outlay.
    3. Auxiliary investment: (1) the reconstructing of the test town; (2) administerial management outlay; (3) welfare for employees.
    4. Estimate of investment returns.

E. Structure of test personnel??

  1. The key personnel commanding and leading the test should be composed of powder-making engineers, experts on agricultural microbes and chief inspector of finance.
  2. Program-design personnel;
  3. Operation personnel;
  4. Production personnel;
  5. Testing personnel;
  6. Scientific research personnel;
  7. Logistics backup personnel;
  8. Financial management personnel.

F. Key research items:
The 4 categories and 24 items should all be set up as research programs and specific persons should be responsible for them to ensure the completion of the whole test. Based on actual conditions, they can also be divided into sub-programs or specific research items targeting the key problems of the test program. The test should be carried out in the spirit of scientific, practical and realistic attitudes. The test records should be genuine and reliable and measured data should be correct. Through these research works, the operation of the programs will be better directed and solid bases will be laid for the completion of the final report.
G. Test monitor and product quality inspection system:

  1. Investigate the national and international regulations and standards in the fields of environmental protection, organic agriculture, organic foods, soil environment and water for farmland use, etc. On the basis of these investigations, work out the standards of the industry taking the practical conditions of China into consideration. In principle, the standards should be higher than related national and international standards to adapt to the requirements for future development.
  2. The related national and international regulations and standards refer to:
    1. The basic viewpoints and standards of International Federation of Organic Agricultural Movement (IFOAM);
    2. Related regulations of the European Union on the marketing of Organic agricultural produce;
    3. “Certificate-Issuing Standards”(1994) by the International Organic Crops Improving Association (OCIA);
    4. “Organic (natural) foods standards” (1995) by the Organic Foods Development Center (OFDC) of the National Environmental Protection Bureau;
    5. “Green Foods Standards” (1995) by China Green Foods Development Center;
    6. Soil quality standards specified in “China Soil Environment Background Values” compiled by China Environment Monitor Station as well as GB3095-82, GB5084-92, GB11607-89, GB5749-85, GB3838-88, etc.
  3. Purchasing advanced equipment;
  4. Training of personnel;
  5. Setting up a full scale system monitoring the air, water, soil, development of crops and farm products in the test area and inspecting product quality;
  6. Regular health checkups for people and animals (livestock and poultry) living in the test area;
  7. Guaranteeing that the background environment beyond the test area will not be polluted or damaged.

H. Business accounting of test management:

  1. The 4 categories and 24 items should be set up as separate programs and business accounting should be done separately;
  2. Relevant national financial and economic policies and calculation methods should be strictly followed, reflecting truly the income and payout conditions of the test. The financial examination and approval system should be strictly obeyed with layered responsibilities and no deregulation or law-infringement incidents should happen. Once discovered, those held responsible should be severely punished.?
  3. The values of various economic and technical parameters should be accurately calculated, e.g. artificial soil cost (RMB?¥/t), artificial land cost (RMB?¥/mu), artificial meadow cost (RMB?¥/hectare) as well as the cost of greening cities, barren hills and treating sandy land (desert), etc.
  4. Calculate the total input/output ratio (RMB?¥/RMB?¥);
  5. Estimate the economic benefits;
  6. Predict the economic risks;
  7. Obtain the basic experiences and patterns of business accounting of artificial soil.

I. Prediction of social benefits:

  1. Increase 20000 mu land resources. Supposing the test town (Taoyuan Town) has 20000 mu land originally, with the new land area, the average land area has doubled to be 2mu/ per person;
  2. Provide permanent job opportunities for 4000 people, which is calculated supposing a 4 member family (a young couple with a kid and an elder) has 10? mu land;
  3. Improve the capability of feeding 20000 people;
  4. Promote the development of related industries and at least 2000 non-permanent job opportunities will be provided;
  5. Because of the backup force of “Land resources being not limited”, the development of towns and the overall arrangement of industries can be better planned to realize in a real sense the favorable development cycle of population, resources, environment and economy as well as the natural protection of the natural environment;
  6. It will help improve the material and spiritual civilization level of the town dwellers, improve human relations and change government functions;
  7. For the overall society, a town with 20000 people can solve the employment problem for 6000 people, which will certainly play some roles in preventing large numbers of migrant workers from flooding to big cities and maintaining social stability.
  8. The test town (Taoyuan Town) is the epitome of China in 200 years when 2 billion mu land is manufactured.

J. The completion of the summary report: The summary report to be written in 20 years will provide answers to the problems put forward in the test target and make a comprehensive and impersonal evaluation of the artificial soil technique, providing theoretical basis and technical preparation for making 2 billion mu land in 200 years time in China.
Up to now, the lab test, 20 intermediate test programs and 8 recommendations have all been illustrated. However I deeply understand that as a practical technique, the intermediate test of artificial soil is extremely important and it is a bridge from lab test leading to practical application. To further persuade my countrymen, I would like to give some of opinions from the high plane of the rationality, inevitability and the practicability of the technique as well as the development strategy of our country in the future.
The basic principle of artificial soil is more or less the same as the mechanism of forming natural soil. The difference lies in that the time needed for artificial soil to form and the process is greatly shortened. In nature, any kind of soil comes from hard rocks, and it is a lengthy and complex process, which takes hundreds of thousands of years, millions of years or even millions upon millions of years. In this sense, land resources are limited. However artificial soil which is made of these basic materials (rocks) can have the four functions of water, fertility, air and heat and the basic conditions for plants to grow in a extremely short time. The time duration is so short that I can even make such a promise. You dig a stone from a hill or coal mine tunnel (eg. andesite, basalt, gangue, black mudstone). I make the stone into inorganic powder (i.e. parent material manufacturing soil) within one hour and mix it with prepared compost manufacturing soil in certain proportion to make artificial soil within half an hour. Then wheat seeds can be sowed within another half an hour, so it takes less than 2 hours to change the big stone into artificial soil. I can make another promise. The wheat seeds will sprout in three days and ear of wheat will be seen in 70 days. In terms of time, the natural process taking hundreds of thousands of years or millions of years has been shortened to less than 2 hours. In this sense, land resources are not really limited. In terms of the analysis of mineral components and chemical elements, natural soil has no difference from artificial soil, which states the rationality of artificial soil technique.
One technique has its rationality, but it does not necessarily have its inevitability and the same technique may have its inevitability in this aspect, but not in other aspects. As I have stated before, artificial soil may not be very useful in India, Brazil, the U.S.A. or Russia, but it will provide timely help in China who has a large population but little land. I have also stated that we will have to feed 1.6 billion people with 1.6 billion mu cultivated land in the near future and the sense of agricultural crisis is like a “sword” suspending over our heads. Under such circumstances, there is someone in China who tries to develop a new method of his own to break through the traditional concept of “land resources being limited” and probe into the methods to increase land resources. He is eager to meet the great needs of the nation and deliberate on the worries of the public, so such acts are good deeds, which should win the active support of the countrymen. I am perfectly aware that artificial soil technique itself is not perfect yet and some errors may even exist. Just because of this, I deeply expect to get support from government officials, help from scientists and investment from entrepreneurs. I hope to perfect the technique that belongs to our Chinese people with our concerted efforts to serve our Chinese people. This is where the inevitability or necessity of artificial soil technique arises.
One technique must have its practicability to become real after its rationality and inevitability. The so called practicability means whether we have enough economic capability to carry it out or whether it is worth spending so much money to make artificial soil and artificial land. The project is really a huge one. In the next 200 years, RMB?¥1000 billion/year will be spent on making 2 billion mu land. The material powder needed will be 5 billion tons each year, which will take no fewer than 0.1 billion people. What on earth does the RMB?¥1000 billion mean to China? It equals 1/10 of China’s GDP or 50% of the tax revenue of China or the investment for 5 Three-Gorges projects or 1/3 of America’s annual military expenditure. Speaking matter-of-factly, at the present stage in China, it is not possible to start an artificial soil project at such a high cost, which is reasonable. However in 20 years time, our country’s economic power will change greatly with the GDP quadrupled to reach RMB?¥40000 billion and RMB?¥1000 billion is 1/40 of GDP. By then, the tax revenue can at least be doubled and it is expected to be RMB?¥8000 billion and RMB?¥1000 billion equals 12.5% of the national tax revenue in 20 years times. To look a little further into the future, 20 years later to 200 years later, no one can predict how many times our economic power will be increased. Therefore we prepare the artificial soil technique in the first 20 years of this century and then extend it fully after conditions are in place 20 years later, which is the practicability of artificial soil technique.

Next I will talk briefly about the strategic meanings of the artificial soil technique.
1. The artificial soil technique is a gold key to solve the multi-contradictions of “population-resource-environment-development”.
After hard work for more than half a century, our country has achieved world-acknowledged achievements. The powerful increase of the economy, the improvement of the overall national strength, the improvement of people’s living standards and the forming of the national stability are all specific symbols of the rising of China and the rejuvenating of the Chinese nation. However, as strategic research, we must be prepared for danger in times of peace and analyze the basic national conditions deeply to find out the problems China is facing now and work out a solution that has the effects of “Pull one hair and the whole body is affected”. As for national and international problems of great importance, related strategic countermeasures must be prepared; especially the opinions of non-governmental “strategists” must be heeded to.
The most abundant resources in China are people, the most insufficient resources are land, the most serious problem is environment and the most severely prohibited factor is development. Sufficient human resources are advantageous originally, but overpopulation, on the contrary, becomes a burden. There are 1.3 billion people in China now. The surplus labor force in the countryside runs up to 0.25 billion people and the number of farmers migrating to cities has surpassed 0.1 billion and the number of farmers breaking away from agriculture has reached 13 million each year. If the urbanization level reaches 60% in the year 2020 in China and the population is 1.6 billion, the urban population will reach 0.96 billion, which is the historical trend that can not be resisted. The 1.6 billion people will eat, dwell and work and the 1.6 billion mu cultivated land will have to feed such a population, which imposes great pressure and impact on the land and agriculture. The environmental situation of China is even more worrying. By 1995, the accumulated volume of solid industrial waste had reached 6.64 billion tons in China. At present, 2/3 cities have been surrounded by rubbish and pollution is spreading quickly from cities to the countryside. 95% untreated rubbish is being transported to the countryside or dumped to rivers. “3 degree” polluted farmland has exceeded 0.1 billion mu, which brings about one disaster after another to China that is already short of land resources. 88% of China’s rivers have been polluted to different degrees. The total volume of soil erosion each year has reached 5-6 billion tons. Desertification area of land has reached 2.622 million km2 and desertification of land is spreading at the average rate of 2460 km2 each year. All these figures are not exaggerated or distorted figures, but real facts. They are the problems that restrict the development of our economy. We must smash the bond of traditional concepts and find out an all-round solution that is trans-sector, trans-discipline, trans-trade and can play a leading role in dealing with all the problems from the high plane of strategic development. I have consulted many scientific and technical documents and tried to find out the solution, but without satisfactory results. Thinking back and forth, I still think that although artificial soil technique cannot be called “panacea” that can solve all problems, it is no exaggeration to say that it is a gold key to solving all the above problems. The reasons are as follows:
1) With the technique of artificial soil, soil can be manufactured commercially on a large scale and at high speed. The soil will be mostly used for making artificial land, thus changing the traditional concept that “land resources are limited”, which will radically solve the problem of inadequate land resources of China and enable the sustainable development of agriculture to have reserve strength.
2) The materials used for making artificial soil are nothing but the solid waste produced by industries, agriculture, mining, melting and construction, etc. as well as household rubbish, straw, human and animal wastes and silt in lakes and rivers, etc. (except harmful substances). These so-called pollutants are just used to make soil, thus changing wastes into valuable resources and solving the problem of environmental protection thoroughly and from the starting point.
3) The technique is simple to operate, so the ordinary people can accept it. There are about 0.9 billion farmers in China, so the technique will have strong mass bases and it will be easy to extend it. At the same time, lots of employment opportunities will be provided, which is beneficial to the systematic development of the society, the improvement of social benefits and the maintaining of social stability.
4) The quality standards of artificial soil can be designed differently according to the different management purposes, so the 2 billion mu land is a high quality resource. The quality of artificial cultivated land should be higher than that of the production bases of green foods in China. The production and management activities should be conducted according to the regulations on organic agriculture specified by Organic Foods Development Center (OFDC) of the National Environment Protection Bureau so as to improve the export competitiveness of our country’s agricultural products with expected good economic benefits. The stable development of agriculture will definitely promote the coordinated development of the other economic sectors of our country, thus enabling the harmonious combination of apparently contradicting natural issues and social issues, such as the development of economy, human activities, environmental protection, the restoration of natural ecological balance and the protection of diversity of organisms, etc to form a favorable cycle in a real sense and realize “nature and human in one” and reach the state of “following the natural rules”.
2. The extending and application of artificial soil technique is an important move in strengthening the construction of agricultural infrastructure in China
Since China became a civilized society, the governments of past dynasties have always put farmers and land problems first in their agenda. If these problems were dealt with successfully, the country would prosper. On the contrary, the dynasties would be toppled if disturbances occurred in this regard. Since the founding of People’s Republic of China, the development status we have achieved is mainly attributed to the stability of agricultural infrastructure. However, the potential of agricultural development of China is really limited and the burden that agriculture shoulders is too heavy. Among all the economic sectors of China, agriculture is the most important and the weakest sector with great potential crisis. In another word, it is an unstable factor. Our country has put forward many measures to support agriculture, e.g. reduction of farmer’s burdens, the schedule of addressing the 3-agriculture-related issues, advocating paying attention to and supporting agriculture by various trades, etc. However these measures cannot solve the agriculture and farmers’ problems fundamentally. If artificial soil technique is feasible after being proved by the intermediate test, our country can allocate RMB?¥1000 billion/year capital that is equivalent to 2.5% of GDP or 12.5% of the national tax revenue to the construction of agricultural infrastructure 20 years later. The sum of money will make 10 million mu cultivated land for agriculture each year, accumulating 2 billion mu in 200 years. If the original 2 billion mu cultivated land (I do not speak of 1.6 billion mu) is taken into account, the cultivated land area in China will total 4 billion mu. By then, our farmer brothers will have land to plant crops, clothes to wear. Their living standards will be improved steadily. They may set up small towns and their cultural life will be enriched. In that case, who else would like to leave one’s native place and work temporarily in the cities? By then, we can say that the agricultural infrastructure of China is stabled. Therefore the extending and application of the artificial soil technique is the most important move in strengthening the construction of agricultural infrastructure in China.
3. The start-up of the artificial soil project may bring along the obvious development of related industries and provide job opportunities for hundreds of millions of people.
The artificial soil project is a huge project and it needs the government to play a leading role in mobilizing the whole society to realize the target of making 2 billion mu land in 200 years depending upon the spirit of drawing together and striving that our Chinese Nation has upheld from ancient times. The success of the artificial soil project has to be supported by large sums of money. We insist that spending the money will not result in “virtual work” or “nothing at all”. What we will get is valuable land resources and what we will own is high quality property. The 2 billion mu artificial land is invaluable treasure, the lifeblood of our peoples. Since it is such a large project, it will naturally need a great many people to carry it out in the 200 years period, providing many employment opportunities. The employment opportunities can be classified into 4 groups: 1) personnel directly involved in artificial soil and artificial land making; 2) personnel involved in soil-making and land-making related industries; 3) personnel directly involved in production, management, processing and administration on the artificial land; 4) personnel working in auxiliary sectors to production activities on the artificial land. The first and the third groups are permanent employment opportunities, and the second and the fourth are non-permanent. We can make a brief estimation. If 10 million mu new land is made every year, no less than 0.1 billion people will be required to carry out material-collecting, classifying, making powders, fermenting organic materials as well as construction of artificial land and transportation of all kinds of materials, etc. With the increase of 10 million mu new land, millions of people will be needed to engage in production and management activities. As for the 2 billion mu land, people needed for production and management will be at least 0.2 billion supposing 10mu/person, excluding the employment opportunities in related industries. Therefore it is not fabricating that the start-up of the project will regulate the labor market, meet the employment requirements of hundreds of millions of people and provide job opportunities for hundreds of millions of people.
4. The occurrence of artificial soil technique makes the capability of human repairing the earth greater than that of damaging it for the first time.
Since industrial revolution, the west capitalist powers have promoted the development of productive forces and created unprecedented human civilization on one hand, and on the other they have tried to meet the unceasingly swelling consumption lust of the people at the cost of sacrificing the natural environment and developing resources in a plunderous way. Because people do as they please, their actions have led to many consequences and now they have to think over what have done, thus coming into being many spontaneous green environmental protectionists or what so ever and relevant regulations by various governments. The concepts of green foods and organic agriculture have been acknowledged by the public. Anything has its dual nature and human behavior is a double-edged sword. If we say the process of developing the economy and damaging the natural environment is a forward process, then the artificial soil mechanism is a reverse process, i.e. a process repairing the natural environment. Taking China as an example again, if 10 million mu land is made each year, the mechanism of artificial soil is like a “black hole” that swallows more than 5billion tons of solid waste from factories, mining and construction and other industries, household rubbish (except harmful substances) as well as about 0.5 billion tons of organic wastes (including human and animal wastes). What comes out of these wastes is soil, which is the most needed to repair the earth. This is to say the rate of damaging the earth is about the same as the rate of repairing it, thus turning the trend of degrading the natural environment radically.
During the initial period of the artificial soil project, all of the “ ecological burdens” cannot be eliminated at once except for slowing the soil erosion rate, containing the spreading of desertification of land and gradually restoring and improving the ecological environment. With the progress of the artificial soil project as well as the improvement of science and technology and the appearance of new technology, especially the change of people’s ideas and concepts and the establishment of related compulsory laws and systems, things will change in favor of restoring the natural ecological environment. In economic life, waste will become less and less. With the increase of economic capability, human beings will strengthen the repairing of the earth and the method for doing it will be improved. It is completely possible to restore our homestead ---- the earth to its original living conditions. As for water and air pollution, the technical problems have been resolved. As long as people’s concepts are changed and people are willing to invest and laws are executed strictly, there won’t be any more problems.
5. During the operation of artificial soil technique, our countrymen’s quality can be improved with the change of the old living habits.
With the concept of artificial soil technique deeply rooted among the people, the improvement of people’s material and spiritual civilization levels and the change of people’s old living habits and the forming of new living habits, changes will take place to human relations and the functions of the governments. According to the requirements of artificial soil technique, our governments should guarantee that all the members of the society should get used to the following: 1) Make changes to the existing drainage system in cities with zero discharge of industrial waste water. The industrial waste water will be 100% recycled and should not be allowed to be drained into natural water bodies (rivers, lakes and seas). 2) The city dwellers’ wastes (including animals’) should be collected to be used as organic material for artificial soil. The household rubbish should be classified and managed compulsorily to be used as artificial soil materials after being recycled (harmful substances to be treated specially). No admittance into the environment. 3) Only household water, such as rice–washing water, vegetable-washing water, clothes-washing water and bathing water can be drained into the civil sewage system. The household water, in principle, does not enter the natural water bodies; instead it is used for greening after being treated or irrigating after being proved to be qualified. 4) Adopt the system of “the last working procedure”, i.e. all the solid waste produced by industries like factories, mining and construction will be treated as resources. After being chosen by other sectors, the last use will be for making artificial soil (To avoid misunderstanding, I underscore here once again that the harmful substances will be treated specially.) 5) Relevant laws, codes and agreements should be established to combine compulsory measures with education and persuasion. The young ones should be indoctrinated with the concept of protecting the environment and adults should be models of the young ones in this regard. When unpleasant behavior is seen, someone should speak up and all members of the society are expected to care for the society. Every member of the society should be aware that since you were born to this world, you would have to consume 324 tons of air, 54 tons of water and 32.4 tons of food. All of them are bestowed on you by the nature and human society. They will become waste, something that is harmful to others as well as yourself after being consumed by you. In addition, you would produce 1.2 kg of rubbish and other waste every day. As a member of the society, you are obliged to put the waste in proper places (i.e. wastes in closed containers) and should not feel any inconvenience. Good habits should be developed. Of course, it is another story for the elderly and those who cannot take care of themselves but need help from other people or the society. Talking so far, it can be seen that the artificial soil technique seems to be a technical issue, but in fact it is an issue of social concept that requires people to change their old living habits and customs and establishing new ones. Closer ties will be set up among people and everybody cares about our society. If China is able to take the lead in achieving the above in the world, who would doubt that our nation’s quality has been improved?
6. The artificial soil technique represents the combination of traditional concepts of the Chinese nation with world modern science and technology, providing an even broader space for the development of science and technology.

The traditional culture of the Chinese nation is broad and profound and its concepts are hard to describe, so I have drawn a diagram illustrating the material balance of artificial soil - the circulation of material flow, which can offer some clues. The sky is round and the earth is square. The moon sets and the sun rises. The damaging process and repairing process are revolving cyclically. All these sound a little like the mysterious scenes of “Taiji”. As for modern science and technology, almost all the subjects and sectors are involved, including pedology, petrology, agricultural microbiology, desert science, environment science, mechanical science, zoology, botany, medical science, information technology, program design, meteorology, paleogeography, modern economics, philosophy and traditional Chinese philosophical concepts, etc. It should be noted that the artificial soil project is the No.1 super large-scale project in history, requiring an estimated total investment of RMB?¥200000billion and 200 years to complete. To enable the smooth operation of the project, it is impossible to do the calculations, give orders, compile programs and allocate capitals without extra-large computers and any strategic errors will bring about irretrievable loss. During the operation of the project, various difficulties will be met at all times and subjects to be addressed will be unprecedentedly numerous, which provides a broad field for scientists, scholars and entrepreneurs to contribute their intelligence and wisdom.

Material Balance of Artificial Soil - Circulation of Material Flow
   1、 About 6 billion tons of soil eroded each year
   2、 Men and animals activities and household rubbish
   3、 Natural environment damaged and polluted
   4、 Forest and grassland area shrinking due to agricultural and animal husbandry
   5、 Felling of trees and vegetation damaged
   6、 Industries, mining, construction
   7、 Desertification of land
   8、 Desert invasion
   9、 Urbanization and industrialization
   10、 More than 5 billion tons of harmless solid waste needed for soil making each year.
   11、 Artificial land increases the quantity of land resources.
   12、Artificial grassland increases the quantity of grassland resources.
   13、 City greening improves the living environment.
   14、 Wild hills greening increases the quantity of forest resources.
   15、 Sand-control, soil-control, sand-prevention, cultivated land and grassland improving
   16、 No human and animal waste goes into the water bodies, protecting the water resources.
   17、 Use engineering agricultural technique to prevent water from flowing towards the east and improve local climates.
   18、 Set up relevant regulations and laws to curb pollutions and environmental damage from occurring.
   19、 Natural ecological environment
   20、 Mechanism of artificial soil
   21、 Process of damaging the earth
   22、 Process of repairing the earth
   23、 Nature and human in one
   24、 Following the natural rules
7. The artificial soil technique can further improve the competitiveness of China among the five superpowers to enable China to be in a more favorable position.
The competition among superpowers is after all the competition in terms of economic strength and the comprehensive national strength. Compared with the other countries, China is not inferior in terms of the development momentum and potential of all aspects except agriculture. Since we get hold of the artificial soil technique and we are rich in labor resources, we can make best use of the advantages and bypass the disadvantages and try our best to make up the gap. With the artificial soil technique, we can follow our wills as a superpower. We should increase our land resources in a planned way to direct surplus labor force, idle capital and equipment as well as surplus productive force to the increasing of land resources, thus strengthening solid agricultural infrastructure for China.
The quality of artificial soil is superb and it can be designed according to different crops and different management purposes. The soil is non-pollutant and the contents of harmful heavy metals and chemical substances can nearly be reduced to zero. Because of the guarantee of land resources, the scale and efficiency of agricultural production can be improved substantially. We will be able to not only realize self-supporting of products, like cereals, cotton, vegetables, and fruits and sideline animal husbandry products, but also develop characteristic agricultural and fine agricultural products greatly to improve the competitiveness of our agricultural products in the world market.
Our Chinese people have the traditional merits of being industrious and thrifty. The development of agriculture in China has lasted for about 10000 years. With the modern artificial soil technique, the development of agriculture is provided with reliable material basis and resources guarantee. We will be able to produce not only enough but also high quality agricultural and animal husbandry products. In addition, we are bestowed with abundant human resources, so the quick development of all sectors is inevitable and unquestionable. In world history, China’s economy had once been in the leading position for a long time and the opening of the Silk Road and the offshore Silk Road is the evidence. In modern terms, our GDP had taken up over half of the world’s total for a long time. Therefore I believe that the days when our GDP takes up 51% of the world’s total will come sooner or later. Only by then can we say that our preliminary targets have been met.
In terms of superpower strategy, Russia and the United States can be regarded as models in the world. Since January 1547 when Ivan Ⅳ was crowned, the policy of territorial expansion had been adopted in Russia till the end of World War Two, lasting for more than 400 years. No matter how the dynasties were replaced or the governments changed, this basic national policy has remained the same. The territorial area of the Soviet Union reached 22.4 million km2 in the period of great prosperity, being the largest country in the world in terms of territory and stretching across Europe and Asia. The United States of America had adopted the policy of opening to the world and development since the declaration of independence by George Washington in June 1776 till the end of World War Two for a period of more than 150 years. Regardless of the change of regimes, the basic national policy has remained the same and America has become the most developed, the richest and the most powerful country in the world and it is the unique superpower in the world.
China has historically been a peace-loving country that is on friendly terms with its neighbors. Confucius said, “To have friends coming from afar, isn’t it a happy thing?” When we become stronger in the future and have more economic power, more surplus capital and surplus productive force, we would not follow the example of some countries to “build roads” or “set up systems”. Instead, we will focus our strength on learning from their model spirit and addressing the national issues well within 200 years. We will handle the problems of land degrading and land desertification. We will green the wild hills. In one word, we will improve the international competitiveness of our country for the purpose of no longer being bullied by others instead of bullying others.
8. The adoption of the artificial soil technique is a good way to deal with world-wide emergencies.
Our country is such a big one and the international relations are so complicated. Anything could happen at any time, such as natural disasters, accidents, wars, nuclear wars, sudden raids, etc. To live in the world in an invincible position, one should always be prepared to deal with all kinds of situations. As a superpower, we should respond more quickly to emergencies and have stronger endurance. The artificial soil technique and especially the engineering agricultural technique have taken these factors into account. For example, artificial land will be made in locations with more than 70m of altitude in case of the elevation of the sea level. We will talk about dealing with emergencies by taking No. 16 intermediate test program of artificial soil technique for example. The program is a typical one set at the southern foothill of Mount Tianshan as its background, simulating agricultural activities under extreme adverse natural conditions. The artificial land is chosen to be on the slope with 45° angle exposed to the sun. The test area is covered with exposed rocks, with almost no plants, no natural soil. The climate here is dry with annual precipitation of less than 200 mm. The temperature is high with enough sunlight and big temperature difference between day and night. According to the artificial land design program, engineering agricultural technique will be used to cut into the mountain and break the rocks and 100 cm deep trough base of terraced fields will be built first. Then dig a water storage chest below the trough base. The water storage chest is connected with the gathering ground in the test area. Fill 100 cm thick artificial soil into the trough base of the terraced fields, thus the artificial cultivated land comes into being. To prevent the evaporization of water of the fields, plastic sheds or glass sheds are built on the artificial land. When it rains or snows, ground runoff will be formed on the mountain and the water in the gathering ground will flow to the water storage chest below the artificial land. It is designed in the program that 695 m3 water can be stored under every mu of artificial land, that is to say, one full fill of water of the water storage chest equals 1041mm annual precipitation, which can not be used up for irrigating in two years. Therefore even in case of atomic war, clean water will be provided for men and animals and the supply of water and foods can be guaranteed for the soldiers at the front, which is of practical meaning to rejuvenating the Chinese Nation and defeating all outside invaders. In addition, I am not purposely turning simple things into mysteries or trying to please the public by claptrap. It will be of some meaning to have tests inside underground tunnels, at outer space stations or on the surface of the moon. In another word, even if the artificial cultivated land can no longer be used because of nuclear pollution, we can make another piece of land. From this intermediate test program, people can get some idea of how artificial soil technique can be used to deal with emergencies.
9. The technique is a new contribution made by the Chinese Nation to the future development of the world
Mr. Brown, an American once said in his book “Who Will Feed the Chinese?” that the cereal production of China can not be improved and the food shortage will be 0.369 billion tons by 2030, accounting for 57% of its demand. Not only China can not support itself, but the world market can not bear it. Mr. Brown hoped dimly in another of his book “The World Situation in 1995” that this country that has invented paper-making and gunpowder may be in the lead among the west countries once again in terms of setting up a sustainable development economy. If China makes it, China will be envied by other countries and be their model. If China fails, the whole world will have to pay for it. (Quoted from “Deep Worries”). I believe the second quoting fits in exactly with what I have thought about. We will definitely win because we have got hold of the artificial soil technique, which can increase our land resources. We have high quality seeds(i.e. hybrid rice and super rice), which can increase production substantially. We have intelligent and industrious people and we can create a miracle. The key problem is how much money can be invested into the project. If we can realize our target of making 2 billion mu land in 200 years or we can have 4 billion mu land resources, there won’t be any problem for feeding the 1.6 billion people in China, even the food problem of the 1.2 billion people in Europe and North America won’t be a big issue.
Of course, what I mean by the new contribution is to the developing countries that have more or less the same conditions as ours. Because of our success, they will be enlightened. We can help them make land or help them control natural disasters. We will help them set up confidence and improve their living conditions with their own efforts and create a more beautiful future for themselves.To sum up, I have focused on one key problem in this paper, which is land resources are not limited, but can be increased according to social demands and nations’ wills. “The non-limited idea” of land resources has led our strategic research out of the limit of the 1.6 billion mu cultivated land. We are liberated from the pessimistic sentiments and we are hopeful of the agricultural development in the future of our nation. However what I need most is help from the government, especially financial support to start the intermediate test of the artificial soil technique. Without the intermediate link, large scale expansion is out of the question and everything else is just empty talk.
Li Pengfei
May 17, 2003
Panjin
, Liaoning, P.R. China
 
 
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