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F-043 土业园地 (第043期) 2010.4.12
Field for Artificial Soil TechnologyAST(№043)
作者:李鹏飞 AuthorLi Pengfei April 12, 2010
My Web:www.tuyelt.com Telephone Number:13043864167

本发明的技术方案
Introduction of the Technology

    在自然界,任何类型的土壤都是由岩石变成的。首先,组成地壳的岩石经过物理、化学及生物风化后,发生破碎分解变成成土母质,这种成土母质中的营养元素是分散的容易随水流失,植物最需要的氮却一点也没有。第二步,在成土母质中出现了自生细菌,它不需有机物作养料,只要有了水分、空气、矿质养分及一定的温度条件便能生存繁殖。第三步,地衣、苔藓类低等植物开始生长,随着生物的积累作用越来越大,成土母质中的有机物数量不断增加,最后高等植物逐渐取代了低等植物,通过强大的根系把分散的可溶性养分集中起来,等到这些生物死亡之后,它们的残体经过微生物的分解作用,一部分成为后来植物所需的养分,另一部分变成了腐殖质。腐殖质在成土母质形成肥力方面起重要作用,一方面它能够把养分保蓄起来,另一方面可以改变成土母质的物理性质,使其变得有结构,以致具备了肥力特征。至此,成土母质变成了土壤,实现了由岩石到土壤的演变。
    人造土壤的基本原理与自然界土壤形成的机理基本相同,差异之处在于人造土壤形成的时间和过程大大地缩短了。
    人造土壤的基本原料有三大类。第一类是自然界各种不同类型的岩石,包括沉积岩、变质岩和火山岩,其中以黑色泥岩、黑色页岩、粘土、板岩、千枚岩、花岗岩、玄武岩、安山岩及火山灰为最佳,但不包括某些化学沉积岩,如盐岩、石膏、石灰岩。第二类是工矿建筑业中产生的固体废弃物,包括废石、尾矿、废渣、煤矸石、粉煤灰、砖瓦、陶瓷、水泥构件、砂石、废塑料,但不包括某些有害物质,如残留农药器皿、有毒化合物、重金属含量超标废弃物及含放射性废渣。第三类是各种有机物,包括秸杆、瓜果皮核、蔬菜、杂草、动物残体、藻类、人畜粪便、生活垃圾、肉类、纤维、废布、皮革、废木、河湖淤泥、下水道及废水处理厂污泥、泥炭、褐煤,但不包括有害化学药剂、含汞、苯及重金属含量超标的有机物。人造土壤的工艺过程分为五个步骤﹙见F-036 图一﹚。第一步,将收集到的原料进行分类与细分类。第二步,将分类后的原料按一定的设计要求进行粉碎与研磨并分门别类加以储存。第三步,将有机原料﹙固态有机物要进行粉碎﹚与无机原料粉末按一定比例混合后送入中高温厌氧发酵车间进行充分发酵,制成造土堆肥。第四步,将造土堆肥与无机原料粉﹙即造土母质﹚按一定比例混合便制成了人造土壤,这种人造土壤具有一定的蓄水、透气、肥力和蓄热特征,达到了植物生长所需的基本条件。第五步,对人造土壤做全面的测定和评价,按照绿色食品基地使用的土壤标准,进行作物种植实验,合格后方可出厂销售。

 

本发明的技术方案
Introduction of the Technology

In nature, any kind of soil originates from the evolution of rock. Firstly, the rock composing the earth crust has be changed into the parent material forming soil through physical, chemical and biological erosion. The nutritional element in the parent material forming soil is dispersive and can be lost easily with flowing water, and nitrogen, the most required element for plant growing, does not exist in the parent material forming soil. Secondly, autogenous bacteria begin to appear in the parent material forming soil. The autogenous bacteria do not need organic nutrition, they only need water , air and mineral nutrition as well as a certain temperature for growth and reproduction. Thirdly, Lower-grade plants such as lichen, bryozoan etc. begin to grow. Along with the accumulation of living beings is going more and more, the amount of organic matter in the parent material forming soil is going more and more, Then higher-grade plants gradually replace lower-grade plants, and through strong and extensive root system, the dispersive and soluble nutrition can be concentrated. After the death of organisms, and through decomposition of microbes, one part of the remains of the organisms becomes nutrients for plants, and another part of the remains turns into humus. The humus plays an important role in terms of generating fertility for the parent materials forming soil. On the one hand, it can keep nutrition, on the other hand, it can change the physical properties of the parent materials forming soil and make the parent materials forming soil possess structure and fertility. After all these steps, the parent materials forming soil has turned into soil, and the evolution from rock to soil has been accomplished.
The basic principle of artificial soil and the mechanism of naturally-generated soil are almost the same, the difference is that time and process for generating artificial soil have been shortened greatly.
The essential materials of artificial soil can be divided into three types. The first type is different kinds of rocks including sedimentary rock, metamorphic rock and volcanic rock among which black mudstone, black shale, clay, slate, phyllite, granite, basalt, andesite and volcanic ash are the best except some chemically depositional rock such as salt rock, gypsum, limestone. The second type is solid wastes from industry, mining and construction, including waste rock, tailings, waste slag, gangue, coal cinder, brick and tile, ceramics, cement component, sand and waste plastic except some harmful substance such as container with agricultural chemical, poisonous compound, wastes of over-standard? heavy metal and radioactive substances. The third type is different kinds of organisms, including straw, peels and core of melons and fruits, vegetables, weed, remains of animals, algae, manure of humans and animals, house-hold rubbish, meat, fibre, waste cloth, leather, waste? wood, silt of river and lake, silt from sewer and sewage treatment plant, peat and brown coal except harmful chemicals, organic matter containing over-standard mercury, benzene and heavy metal. The technological process of artificial soil can be divided into five steps ﹙see F-036 Fig. 1﹚. Firstly, Collected raw materials for artificial soil have been classified and classified further. Secondly, Classified inorganic materials have been crushed and abraded to make a lot of powder and store them separately. Thirdly, Organic material ﹙the solid organic matter needs to be crushed ﹚ and inorganic material powder have been mixed in certain proportion and put into ferment workshop under medium-high temperature condition to ferment and make the compost manufacturing soil. Fourthly, The compost manufacturing soil and inorganic materials powder﹙also as:the parent materials manufacturing soil﹚ have been mixed in certain proportion to make artificial soil with properties of water-retaining, heat-retaining, permeation and fertility, and essential condition for growing of plants. Fifthly, artificial soils have been checked and evaluated comprehensively according to standards of soil for green food production base, then experiment of growing crops has been conducted. Only after the soil is tested to be qualified, it can be put to the market.

 
 
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人造土壤技术专利 发明人:李鹏飞  联系电话:13043864167
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