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F-087 土业园地 (第 087 期) 2011.2.14
Field for Artificial Soil Technology AST (№ 087 )
作者:李鹏飞 Author Li Pengfei February 14, 2011
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我国人民群众的创造
Creations of the Chinese people
    在长期的生产实践中,我国广大人民群众创造出许多好的办法,以防止水土流失和解决干旱地区生产与生活用水问题。云南省元阳县哈尼梯田在海拔 144 – 2000 米 ,坡度在 25 度以上。这里雨水充沛,因此元阳山有多高,水有多高。元阳人充分利用这一自然优势,在适合水稻生长的山上开沟引水,围造梯田。广西壮族自治区桂林市龙脊壮族月亮田和金坑瑶族月亮田,都是建于元代成于清代的高山梯田。贵州省毕节市观音河流域的弄拉村,通过封山育林和“坡改梯”,使森林覆盖率达到 72% 。在东北平原,我国专家呼吁,搞“水平梯田”是保护这片黑土地,防止水土流失的根本措施,应尽快启动。微型水利扬威我国西部干旱地区节水型农业,人们从小水窖、小涝池中受益。甘肃省目前建各种蓄水窖 253 万眼,稳定解决 252 万人饮水和 457 万亩集水节灌农业。此外,新疆一带的坎儿井,从山坡上直到田地里挖成一连串的井,再把井底挖通,连成暗沟。把山上融化的雪水和地下水引来浇灌田地,这些都是干旱地区解决生产生活用水问题的好办法。
 
我国人民群众的创造
Creations of the Chinese people

During the long term production practice, lots of clever methods have been created by the Chinese to prevent soil erosion and solve the water problems in the arid regions. In Yuanyang County , Yunan Province , precipitation is abundant, so water resource is rich on the mountains no matter how high they are. By making full use of this natural advantage, the Hani people make terraced paddy fields on the slopes with the degree of over 25 at the altitude of 144-2000 m. In Guilin City , Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, the moon shaped fields of the Longji Zhuang nationality and Jinkeng Yao nationality are both mountain terraces built in the Yuan dynasty and used in the Qing dynasty. In Bijie City , Guizhou Province, there is a village called Nongla through which the Guanyin River flows. In the village, the forest coverage reaches 72% by means of forest conservation and “ slope made into terrace ” . In the northeastern plain, it has been proposed by some experts that “ level terrace ” is the ultimate measure to preserve this piece of black earth and prevent soil erosion and the measure should be taken as soon as possible. In the arid regions in the west, mini water conservancy projects are playing a key role. People make full use of small cisterns and dubs. In Gansu Province , there are 2.53 million cisterns of various kinds, which can meet the need of drinking water for 2.52 million people and irrigation for 4.57 million mu land. In Xinjiang, a chain of wells are dug all the way from the hillsides to the fields and the bottoms of the wells are then connected to form a blind ditch, which is called “ Kariz ” . The water melted from snow on the mountains and underground water is introduced to the Kariz for irrigation purposes. All the above mentioned measures are meaningful in solving the water problems in the arid regions.

 
 
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